Wupatki and Wukoki

Looking down on Wupatki ruin with the grand kiva out front. Much of the building has been restored so the walls are quite high in places
The setting of Wupatki
Close up of the  Wukoki Tower structure, built of simple sandstone and mud stack architecture
The tower at Wukoki

The landscape is littered with old volcanic cinder and spatter cones. The stratovolcano at Kachina Peaks is a few miles to the southwest. None of these volcanic remnants has erupted in almost 1,000 years but the ruins at Wupatki National Monument date from just about that time.

This is the Colorado Plateau and the climate was a bit wetter back in those days. The Sinagua, Cohonina and Kayenta Anasazi inhabited the area, growing crops, hunting wild game and making pottery. Those tribes and their ancestors had inhabited the area for maybe 10,000 years at the time of the last eruption at Sunset Crater around 1,000 CE. Hopi and Zuni elders tell old stories about watching the "fireworks" happening when the volcano was letting blast.

When the eruptions were over, the landscape had changed considerably and was newly fertilized with the addition of fresh-fallen ash and minerals. Better crop yields were able to support a bigger population. That bigger population was better able to construct better living quarters.

The pueblos at Wupatki and Wukoki were begun and probably reached their zenith in the 1100's CE. Construction of the Citadel was begun about the time the others were being completed but the climate was starting to get drier and the farming started to produce less food. By about 1225 CE these pueblos were completely abandoned.

Looking at Wupatki ruin from up on a roof. Much of the building has been restored so the walls are quite high in places
The remains of Wupatki
Map showing the paqths of migration of the Kayenta-Tusayan people as they headed south out of northeastern Arizona in the 1200s CE
Migrations of the Kayenta-
Tusayan people, 1200s CE

Wupatki was the largest multi-room structure in the area but even at its height, it might have had no more than 100 residents. Wukoki was smaller and the Citadel smaller yet. But there may have been several thousand people living within a day's walk and these three were the big towns of that time: cultural, religious, political and trading centers. One of the ruins found in this area has been tentatively identified as being a "ball court" similar to ball courts found among the Hohokam settlements in southern Arizona and among the Meso-American cities of Mexico and Central America.

The structures were built of flat red sandstone pieces mortared together in what is now called "stack architecture." Logs were brought in from the mountain forests and used for roof/floor beams. Around each central living structure was a series of pithouses and smaller pueblos. The buildings were located close to springs that flowed in those wetter days (but don't flow now - now the only water here is pumped up out of 900-foot deep wells). Also near each pueblo structure is a large catch pond, to catch rain water for irrigation.

When the Great Drought of the 1200s set in, Wupatki, Wukoki, the Citadel and numerous other local pueblos were abandoned. Most of the people headed south to Homolovi and beyond as part of the first wave of Kayenta-Tusayan migrants.

Looking at Wukoki ruin from up on a roof
The remains of Wukoki
Looking up at the stack architecture of the external wall of the Citadel
The external wall of the Citadel
The ground inside the walls of the Citadel ruin is littered with the small sandstones that made up the walls
Inside the wall in the remains of the Citadel
Photos courtesy of Eyes of the Pot, CCA-by-SA 4.0 License

Sites of the Ancients and approximate dates of occupation: